Arkistot kuukauden mukaan: toukokuu 2016

Radiohaastattelu nuorten medialukutaidon ja julkisen toimijuuden kehittäjänä

YK:n lasten oikeuksien sopimus (1989) on merkittävimpiä viimeaikaisia tekoja, joka on edistänyt lasten ja nuorten osallistumista heitä itseänsä koskeviin keskusteluihin ja päätöksentekoihin. Sen lisäksi että lapsia on kuultu enemmän oikeusistuimissa, sopimuksesta on poikinut käytännön ohjeistuksia ja tutkimuksia lasten osallisuudesta. Lapsia ja nuoria on myös otettu lisääntyvästi mukaan tutkimuksiin kanssatutkijoiksi, ei siis pelkästään tutkimuksen kohteiksi. (Shier 2001; Kellett 2010.) Tampereen yliopiston Nuoret estradille -toimintatutkimuksessa (2015–2017) olemme pyytäneet nuoria tutkittavia mukaan arvioimaan heille järjestämiämme mediatyöpajoja ja myös keräämään tutkimusaineistoa haastattelujen muodossa.

Lasten ja nuorten kanssatutkijuutta on epäilty ajatellen, ettei lapsilla on riittävästi tietoa ja pätevyyttä tehdä tutkimusta. Monet tutkijat kuitenkin painottavat, että kun lapsi pystyy muodostamaan itsenäisiä mielipiteitä, hänellä on myös edellytykset tutkimiseen. Haasteena on pikemmin löytää esimerkiksi lapsen ikään nähden sopiva menetelmä ja riittävästi aikaa harjoitella tehtävää. (Bradbury-Jones & Taylor 2015; Kellett 2010.) Nuoret estradille -tutkimuksessa ikääkin keskeisemmäksi muodostui nuorten yksilöllisten ominaisuuksien huomiointi, kuten esiintymisjännitys, kognitiiviset haasteet ja maahanmuuttajanuorten kielitaito. Nuorella on oltava realistiset edellytykset onnistua annetussa tehtävässä, jotta osallistumisen mahdollinen voimauttava vaikutus ei käänny päinvastaiseksi.

Kevään 2016 valokuvatyöpajani lopussa pyysin nuoria osallistumaan Tampereen yliopiston Radio Moreenin Apinalaatikko-ohjelmaan. Haastatteluohjelman aihe muotoutui hankkeen tutkimuskysymysten pohjalta: millainen mediatyöpaja innostaa nuoria? Kevään työpajassani mukana olleesta kahdeksasta nuoresta jopa viisi lupautui keksimään haastattelukysymyksiä, haastattelemaan ja olemaan haastateltavana. Suurimpia haasteita oli saada rohkaistua heitä osallistumaan: luoda heille tunne, että haastattelu voi olla kiinnostava tehtävä ja että he kykenevät suoriutumaan siitä. Sanallisen ja sanattoman rohkaisun lisäksi keskeistä oli luoda turvallinen ilmapiiri, kuten tehdä haastattelu tutussa paikassa. Joillekin nuorille osallistumisen esteeksi vaikutti muodostuvan aliarvioitu käsitys omista kyvyistä. Itsetuntoa ei pysty hetkessä nostamaan, mutta mielikuvaan tehtävän haasteellisuudesta oli mahdollista vaikuttaa.

Lopulta radiohaastattelua tuli tekemään kaksi nuorta. Yksi unohti tulla paikalle ja kahdelle tuli este. Yksi sattumalta paikalle tullut syksyn työpajaani osallistunut nuori otettiin spontaanisti mukaan haastatteluun. Tilanne kuvastaa hyvin nuorisotyön arkea. Kolmesta haastatteluun osallistujasta kaksi oli jo aiemmassa työpajassani tutkimustarkoitusta varten haastatellut toisia nuoria ja vastavuoroisesti ollut haastateltavana. Edellisellä viikolla tekemäni yksilöhaastatteluiden johdosta kahdella nuorella oli myös tuore kokemus haastateltavana olemisesta. Yksilö- ja radiohaastattelujen aiheetkin olivat samoja.

Nuoret suhtautuivat haastattelutehtävään vakavasti ja laativat kysymyksiä keskittyneesti. Autoin jokaista kysymysten laatimisessa vain heidän tarpeidensa mukaan. Kerroin heille haastatteluvinkkejä. Nauhoitimme pari testikysymystä. Kun varsinainen nauhoitus alkoi, jännitys nousi pienessä huoneessa kattoon asti. Päätimme aloittaa ohjelmanteon sen keskeltä, jonka jälkeen se sujui hyvin. Jos meillä olisi ollut enemmän aikaa harjoitella haastattelemista, nauhoitusta ei varmasti olisi tarvinnut editoida paljoakaan.

Nuorten radiohaastattelusta poiki joukko raikkaita kysymyksiä ja vastauksia, jotka tuottavat käytännönläheisemmän näkökulman nuorten työpajakokemuksiin kuin yksilöhaastatteluni. Lasten kanssatutkijuutta onkin puolustettu sillä, että se voi tuottaa sellaista ”sisältäpäin” syntynyttä informaatiota lasten kokemuksista, joista vanhemman sukupolven voi olla vaikea ellei mahdotonta saada otetta. Toisaalta on varoiteltu, ettei lapsia käytettäisi hyväksi tutkimuksen varjolla. Saavatko lapset varmasti jotakin kanssatutkijuudesta? (Bradbury-Jones & Taylor 2015.) Lupasin nuorille diplomin kanssatutkijuudesta ja elokuvalipun korvaukseksi heidän ajankäytöstään. Diplomi ei juuri kiinnostanut heitä. Kevään työpajassa elokuvalippukin toimi lähinnä houkuttimena ottaa osaa radio-ohjelmaan. Itse haastattelun tekeminen vaikutti olevan heille palkitsevinta, sillä nauhoituksesta lähtiessä kukaan ei muistanut kysellä lippuja. Radio-ohjelmaan osallistuminen edisti heidän medialukutaitoaan. Sitäkin tärkeämmäksi koen, että ohjelmanteko tarjosi nuorille positiivisen kokemuksen heidän kyvyistään, tietoa heidän mahdollisuuksistaan julkisina toimijoina ja tilaisuuden astua julkisuuteen mielipiteineen. Samalla kun ujot ja ei-niin-aktiiviset nuoret motivoituvat toimimaan mediajulkisuudessa omista lähtökohdistaan ja eettisesti kestävästi, kehittyvät myös monilukutaidot.

Nuorten kanssa tekemäni radio-ohjelma on kuunneltavissa SoundCloudista: https://soundcloud.com/radio_moreeni/apinalaatikko-3052016-millainen-mediatyopaja-innostaa-nuoria

Kirjoittaja: Nuoret estradille -hankkeen päätutkija-koordinaattori Mari Pienimäki

 

Lähteet:

  • Bradbury-Jones, C. & Taylor, J. (2015). Engaging with children as co-researchers: challenges, counter challenges and solutions. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(2), 161–173.
  • Kellett, M. (2010). Small Shoes, Big Steps! Empowering Children as Active Researchers. American Journal of Community Psychology, 46, 195-203.
  • Shier, Harry (2001) Pathways to Participation: Openings, Opportunities and Obligations. Children & Society, vol. 15, 107-117.

Critical media literacy should get more attention in media education

Nowadays, a person living in information age is required to have the competences in analyzing and processing data. This qualification can be trained in media education or not?

Buckingham (2003, p.4) defines that ”media education is the process of teaching and learning about media”, while the knowledge and skills learners acquired, which considered as media literacy, is the outcome of media education. The reflection of this concept in case of Vietnam and South Korea indicates the fact that media education, in some ways, is equated with the idea of learning how to use media tools for producing media products, for example, how to use Microsoft PowerPoint to create an effective presentation. Focusing too much on technical skills leads to the misunderstanding of media literacy. The other important elements of media literacy, such as the ability of critically analyzing media messages and questioning what we see, read, watch (Chen, 2007), seem to get not enough attention.

The ”multiperspectival” framework by Kellner (1995, p.336), aims to enhance media literacy in media education, containing four approaches which have cumulative relation to each other’s, see below Figure 1.

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The protectionist approach is based on the limitation in the view point of media to guide the audiences’ perception. As I regard, the examples of this method are Media-avain (Finland), Common Sense Media (USA) and Media Smarties (Netherlands). These services provide information on media products for parents and school to educate children. This definitely can contribute to the improvement of analyzing skills for media audiences.

The arts education method is the way to make education more creative, attractive, fun and experiential. The particular models for this can be found, for example, in Tampere Media School or in Youth Activity Centre HAPPI.

The media literacy movement approach widens the conception of printed literacy to contain more diversified types of media and also require cognitive critical thinking skills of learners.  As I have experienced, the series of ordered activities in our master course ”Workshop in media literacies” at the University of Tampere is the good demonstration of this approach.

Finally critical media literacy integrates three above approaches and cultural studies to deepen the analysis of information and challenge learners to critically assessment media messages. Critical questions can be posed, for example: How media text are constructed and might be constructed differently? (Kavoori & Matthews 2004)? How might different people understand this message differently? What values and points of view are represented in, or omitted from, this message? (Chen, 2007).

In conclusion, the contemporary conceptualizations of media literacy should focus more on the ability to evaluate information, because this knowledge is essential and helps to improve the competence of an individual in digital age.

The author Hang Nguyen is a student in the international Master’s Degree Program in Media Education

 

References

  • Buckingham, D. (2003). Media Education: Literacy, learning and contemporary culture.  Cambridge, UK: Polity.
  • Chen, G. M. (2007). Media (literacy) education in the United States. China Media Research, 3(3), 87-103.
  • Kellner, D. (1995). Media culture: Cultural studies, identity and politics between the modern and the postmodern. New York: Routledge.
  • Kavoori, A & Matthews, D. (2004) Critical Media Pedagogy: Lessons from the Thinking Television Project, Howard Journal of Communications, 15:2, 99-114.

Why media literacy is necessary in consumption of entertainment media?

There is no surprise that nowadays media has become a large part of everyday life for most of people. Media usage is integrated in almost all spheres of our lives, which exerts a significant influence on our personality and the way of thinking.

According to the survey conducted by Elizabeth Tisdell and Patricia Thompson (2007), people, who don’t consume entertainment media frequently, are still fully aware of modern TV shows, their characters and main story lines. This finding can serve as a proof of the entertainment media power to affect users, even without their being conscious.

Nowadays entertainment media, particularly TV and movies, refers to the most popular types of media and consequently has its peculiar features.  As Giroux (2002)  notes, entertainment media often represents traditional norms and general values of the prevailing culture. Therefore most movies’ or TV series characters contain a number of particular features that correspond to the cultural or social norms of society. Elizabeth Tisdell and Patricia Thompson (2007) in their article ‘ Seeing  from a different angle’  depict this common character as a heterosexual married or hoping-to-get- married adult, who belongs to the middle or upper middle class and behaves according to his or her gender, race or class.

On the contrary, some entertainment media challenges usual norms and depicts characters, whose personality and way of life go against traditional norms and views. In this case, race, gender, social status, sexual orientation often become the subject of contradiction and heated disputes.

Sometimes entertainment media can be a sarcastic or even aggressive reflection of particular social issues, cultural or political events. People should be careful in consumption of the entertainment media with such an acute content. Eventhough, most of the users claim that they watch TV series or movies in order to get some entertainment, they can’t be certain that they won’t be influenced by the content of the developing plot and the ideas it contain.

Since media provides people with enormous variety of information and ideas, the importance of media literacy is growing at a rapid rate and, professionals are trying to find out more effective ways to teach this subject to youngsters. For example, professionals claim that the content of pop culture can be a good learning material for practicing critical thinking skills (Armstrong 2005; Giroux 2002; McLaren 1995).

The findings by Tisdell and Thompson (2007) indicate that most of the educators confirm that entertainment media can serve as an effective medium for developing youngsters’ media education. For this reason, in order to increase youngsters’ media literacy, more than 40% of educators have already started to include discussions of the popular culture in their class activities.

The author Daria Erofeeva is  a student in an international Master’s Degree Program in Media Education.

 

References:

  • Armstrong , P. (2005) Satire as critical pedagogy. In J. Cardwell et al. (eds.) What a Difference a Pedagogy Makes: Researching lifelong learning and teaching. Conference Proceedings, Stirling: Centre for Research in Lifelong Learning, University of Stirling.
  • Tisdell, E. & Thompson, P. (2007) ‘Seeing from a different angle’: the role of pop culture in teaching for diversity and critical media literacy in adult education, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 26:6, 651-673, DOI:10.1080/02601370701711349
  • Giroux, H. (2002) Breaking into the Movies: Film and the culture of politics. New York: Blackwell.
  • McLaren, P., Hammer, R., Scholle, D. and Reilly, S. (1995) Rethinking Media Literacy: a critical pedagogy of representation. New York: Peter Lang.

How to promote SNSs to be more suitable for older people

We are in an aging world and nearly a billion people are over 60 years old. Even these one billion aged people are getting older and older. Many of them face the same problem- social isolation. One of the ways to fight against social isolation is to participate in SNSs. What is SNSs? SNSs mean social network services. It’s an on-line environment where people can meet their friends and family and know new friends like Facebook, Twitter, MySpace and so on. According to former researches, there are 86 percentage of people aged between 18 to 29 use SNS, whereas few people older than 65 use it. (Coelho, J., & Duarte, C. 2016.) So we can see here is still a big space for SNS to promote in older age groups. But why few older people use SNS and how to promote SNS to make it more suitable for older segment of the population?

The thesis Obstacles to social networking website use among older adults aims to find more about SNS adoption among older internet users. Braun (2013) did a questionnaire based on TAM (Technology Acceptance Model- this model has two main factors: perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness). He picked up 124 internet users older than 60 to do the questionnaire. And the items in the questionnaire are mainly related to the following 6 domains:

  • Perceived usefulness: how users believe the usefulness of SNS as a communication tool is important in older people’s attitudes toward SNS.
  • Ease of use: how easy to use this SNS is partially important for older internet users.
  • Subjective norms (social influence): the usage habits of individuals around the older like his/her friends and family also affect their attitudes.
  • Trust of SNS: if the website is more reliable, users would more like to upload their identity information, pictures and other privacy information and also use that SNS more.
  • Age: it shows to be not a big factor for using SNS among older internet users. Maybe the participants are all internet users, so most of them are relatively open minded aged people.
  • Past behavior: to start to use a specific SNS is a big obstacle for older people sometimes, but after getting an account, older people may get familiar with the SNS much quicker.

(Braun, M. T., 2013.)

Based on these consequences given by Braun, SNSs Operators need focus more on security of accounts and users’ safety. In addition, according to A literature survey on older adults’ use of social network services and social applications, older people are more sensitive to images. SNS operators should make it easier to share photos on its interface, let older people easy to find privacy setting, provide settings like family group and make the direct communication interface easy to be found. (Coelho, J., & Duarte, C. 2016) All in all, every setting should be the simplest and direct communication interface and photos uploading pages need to be found easily.

The author Zihua AN is a student in the Master’s Degree Program in Media Education

 

References

  • Braun, M. T. (2013). Obstacles to social networking website use among older adults. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 673-680.
  • Coelho, J., & Duarte, C. (2016). A literature survey on older adults’ use of social network services and social applications. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 187-205.

When media education meets English language teaching

Due to its importance nowadays, Media Education has been regarded a separate educational sector. What if Media Education meets English Language Teaching (ELT)? Can they be integrated to enhance each other?

The involvement of language is the first prominent similarity between them. ELT, by its nature, focuses on English language. Through training on receptive and productive skills of English, leaners learn to understand the language in certain contexts and produce appropriate language in realistic situations. For Media Education, the involvement of language is less tangible yet important because it is one means of expressing ideas and exchanging messages through kinds of media. Therefore, language can definitely assist users’ to critically analyze input from media so that they have reasonable judgments and finally make good use of the media.

Secondly, as culture is usually embedded in language, it goes naturally into the ELT process. Along with language input, learners gradually acquire the worldview from not only English-speaking countries but also places where English language is prevalent. At this point, awareness of cultural identity is essential to participate effectively in intercultural communication (Friedrich, 2012). Regarding Media Education, media users in different regions usually show distinctive habits and preference. However, due to globalization, it seems that worldwide media use are converging into certain features. Therefore, cultural sensitivity and transcultural perspectives are also what media educators have to take into consideration.

Thirdly, the possibility of this combination stems from the diversity of topics covered and teaching methods. While acquiring a new language, learners are exposed to various contexts and topics from daily life to global issues. To build up a proper language competence of such diverse disciplines and skills, teachers need to adopt methods flexibly which can range from mechanical practices to creative ones. About Media Education, it is also a cross-disciplinary field which requires a multidisciplinary teaching approach (Verniers, 2015) to train users towards thorough understanding and critical reaction. Basing on this similarity, the method of Integrated Practice in Teaching English as an International Language has been invented and welcomed by worldwide language and media educators (Nobuyuki, 2002).

These 3 similarities open up many prospects for integration of Media Education and ELT. When calligraphy met computers under the talent of Steve Jobs, the revolution of computing fonts and interface has been ignited. While media is spreading rapidly into every corner of life, it is high time to find out innovative ways to implement Media Education instead of considering it a “closed” discipline, and integrating it into other fields which share certain similarities can be a solution.

The author Thao Nguyen is a master student in the international Master’s Degree Program in Media Education

 

Reference

  • Friedrich, P. (2012). ELF, Intercultural Communication and the Strategic Aspect of Communicative Competence. In Matsuda, A., Principles and Practices of Teaching English as an International Language (pp. 44-54). Clevedon, GBR: Channel View Publications.
  • Nobuyuki, H. (2012). Participating in the Community of EIL Users through Real-time News Integrated Practice in Teaching English as an International Language. In Matsuda, A., Principles and Practices of Teaching English as an International Language (pp. 183-200). Clevedon, GBR: Channel View Publications.
  • Verniers, P. (2015). Four Scenarios to Consider Regarding the Future of Media Education. In Kotilainen, S., & Kupiainen, R., Reflections on Media Education Future (pp. 291-294). Göteborg, Sweden: The International Clearinghouse on Children, Youth and Media.